Conflict Resolution Education Training Resources

Marc Hammack


Second Step Trainer’s Manual

www.cfchildren.org

Summary


The manual contains information pertained to the Second Step curriculum series along with information on how to use the curriculum. Second Step is a series of curriculum kits designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in children and increase their level of social competence. It does this by teaching skills in empathy, impulse control, and anger management. The program is designed for all children in Pre-K to 9th Grades. The Trainer’s Manual is segmented in to different areas, the areas are as follows: Curricula Information, Scope and Sequence Lessons, Implementation, Training Modules, Training Adaptations, and Handouts and Transparencies. The lessons are broken down into units. Unit 1: Empathy Training, Unit 2: Impulse Control, Unit 3: Anger Management.

Assessment


The program addresses each grade level with a different approach. For example each grade level addresses Empathy in a different way dependant upon the maturity and age of the students. The program teaches the students different skills in addressing conflict and how to deal with conflict. The program deals with emotions and identifying the problem. This approach is in line with other resources and research in dealing with conflict. A high emphasis is put on communication and role playing situations along with videos portraying situations. In the upper grades the program helps students develop skills in anger triggers, calming down, and reflection, again all skills which are research backed.

Reflection


The Second Step program is a violence prevention curriculum which emphasizes conflict resolution training for students. The program is developed for teachers to use in the classroom. The program is properly lined with suggested curriculum from sources and experts in the field of CRE. The skills taught through the program are skills discussed in the book Getting to Yes. Many children who are in conflicts do not have the necessary skills to resolve the conflict and often act out physically. This program offers teachers, students, and parents the necessary tools for teaching children how to resolve conflict peacefully.

For more information on Second Step please visit the following websites for program evaluation and studies conducted...
ProjectDove@gsu.edu
schoolsafety@gsu.edu

Tangee Pinheiro Conflict Resolution for Kids: An Annotated Bibliography


Lane, P. (1995) Conflict Resolution for Kids: A Group Facilitator’s Guide. Accelerated Development. Washington, D.C, 1995.

Summary:

This resource is a program intended to guide a group facilitator in developing and maintaining a conflict resolution training program for kids in various settings. It includes a session-by-session guide including necessary forms, agendas for meetings, activities, and data collection. The guide includes targeted information for staff, students, and parents. The components of the guide are divided into an introduction that discusses group objectives and advice for the facilitator. This section is followed by sections for each of the five group meetings that the facilitator will have with the students. The guide is concluded with information on research based on this training program, bibliographic information, and information on the author.

Assessment:

This program makes facilitation of group training seamless, effective, and effortless. Because this type of program in not something that you see within every environment, it is valuable that the process is clearly defined. Steps to starting this type of group and all of the necessary steps are available to create an engaging program for children. The examples are real-life examples and encourage children to generalize these skills to their own conflicts. The author, Pamela S. Lane had 15 years of experience with education of children, both typically developing and children with special needs at the time this program was developed. She provides information of the results of the research and field testing so that the facilitator can identify areas of strength within their group and areas that may need support.

Reflection:

The program is wonderful for the busy educator that isn’t able to identify a successful program and pattern after that program. It outlines all of the basic information necessary and provided a pattern also for further types of programs. The program is simple and straightforward which, I believe, is the most valuable piece. Given the nature of education, I would anticipate that a complex and scholarly type of program would inhibit the implementation of programs. I am impressed with the design in that it could easily be implemented in any environment including church groups, home-school support groups, and private schools. We traditionally think that these types of environments may not encounter as many conflicts but the skills taught in this program are aligned with the skills that are taught within the curriculum for these environments therefore would support the overarching goal of the environment.




Devin Blizzard



Peace Talks with Michael Pritchard Chapter 8: Handling Peer Pressure and Gangs


I still walk by drug dealers and friends I went to elementary school with”
“Friends help you to pull it together.”
“We don’t always have the friends we need to have at the times we need to have them.”
“You are the person depending on which crowd you’re with.”
“You want to be down with the crowd”



Summary:

Peace Talks gathers a student voice panel together in a school library with Michael Pritchard to candidly discuss the issues of Peer Pressure and Gangs. It is fast moving and focuses upon the students’ ideas and feelings. This video is not a brutally honest as “Scared Strait”, but it isn’t exactly Mr. Roger’s neighborhood, either. I believe it would be very well received by students grades 7-12 and would inspire conversation.


Assessment: Positive Elements:


  • Real Student Voices
  • New York Area
  • Voices from across the country
  • Multi Racial Representation
  • Males and Females
  • Connects with viewers’ emotional intelligence
  • Irony is that gangs are portrayed by recruiters as a means to safety, but place you in danger
  • African American Gangs mentioned
  • Hispanic Gangs mentioned
  • Life and Death Choices Emphasized ( Dramatic and authentic)
  • Strength is Prichard’s rapport with students group
  • Does a “true friend” have you do something which places you in danger
  • Aims – Teach students to encourage and “Raise each other up”

Assessment: Weaknesses


  • May be a bit sophisticated and frightening for elementary students
  • Discusses joining gangs
  • Discusses smoking Marijuana
  • Violence and Killing mentioned
  • No Mention of Skinheads or Asian Gangs (Which are present in the Valley)


Reflection:

This video is captivating. Pritchard is sincere and charismatic. He genuinely connects with students in order to have them share their voices. At only about 30 minutes in length I believe this video would be a great spring-board into a group activity and lesson. I believe students could watch this video more than once and benefit from it.


Devin Blizzard
Program Reach: Understanding Racism
Produced by Clovis Unified School District 2008


Summary:

This video is a collection of testimonials by students who share their personal experiences involving racism, prejudice, and hatred. Iranian, African American, Mexican American, Hmong American, and mixed race students are prominently featured. A professional narrator describes the Alta Sierra Intermediate’s professional journey to become a more culturally competent learning community through addressing the issues of race in student conflict as well as the embedded imagery and messages contained in within the school’s core history curriculum. Listening in order to gain an understanding of other’s perspectives is an important element in this video’s message. This video is only 15 minutes in length.


Assessment of Strengths:

  • Honest, Real
  • Addresses the Issue of Race which many have a hard time talking about
  • Students telling real stories about their experiences
  • Multi-Racial Experiences covered
  • Students able to connect with student voices in video
  • Parents able to connect with student voices in video




Assessment of Weaknesses

Introduces a powerful set of issues, but leaves students needing to talk and process. The showing of this video should be accompanied by a professional facilitator.
  • Requires follow-up for parent groups viewing video as it creates many emotions
  • Adult Narrative Voice may not make as strong a connection with students.


Reflection:

This video has been shown to many audiences in the CUSD and to students at the CSU Fresno Kremen School of Education over the past year. It has become part of the new teacher training / induction orientation process in CUSD. Audiences have found it to be thought-provoking and emotion provoking. We have discovered this to be most powerful when the students featured in the video accompany the showing of the film. The students introduce the film and make themselves available as a speaking panel following the showing.



The Art of Resolving Conflicts in The Workplace: An Annotated Bibliography


Melissa Ireland
Schwimmer, (1995). The Art of Resolving Conflicts in the Workplace. Kantola Productions. Mill Valley, California.
www.kantola.com


Summary
The Art of Resolving Conflicts in the Workplace is a program that can be used to empower individuals to understand the nature of workplace conflict and provides well defined strategies and techniques to resolve them. The program begins by introducing six techniques for resolving conflict: I vs. you language; anticipation, self-interest; meta-talk; limit-setting; and consequences. Part two of the program examines typical behavior that is encountered in the workplace and applies the strategies in part one to effectively deal with them.



Assessment

The program materials consist of a DVD training video, a learners guide and a study guide. The program is highly scripted and can be used by individuals with little formal training in conflict resolution. The leader’s guide is very detailed and includes a script of the DVD with cues on how and when to initiate discussion with the group. The DVD is broken down into segments and can be halted to allow for group discussion and/or questions. The study guide that comes with the program has a variety of exercises and worksheets that allow participation and guide learning. Overall it is an engaging program that can be used by leaders with a variety of experience levels.
Reflection

The Art of Resolving Conflicts in the Workplace is oriented in the business world but could be adapted to use with staff members in any setting. It would be beneficial if introduced to solve repeated conflicts with a staff or group of staff. It not only encourages participants to be aware of their own behaviors, and increases awareness of counterproductive behaviors in others. This program might be a good first step in bringing about awareness of effective communication strategies and constructive steps in resolving conflicts. The danger of this program is that it is a brief introduction, rather than an ongoing dialogue. It may fall into the category of “a little knowledge is dangerous”.




Andrea (Mora) Jump
Leber, N. J. (2002). Easy Activities for Building Social Skills (Grades PreK-1). Jefferson City, MO: Scholastic Professional Books

Summary
The book is a compilation of social skills for early childhood. These skills range from personal behavior to reading body language. In total, there are 19 “essential social skill lessons.” The author leaves adaption of activities for students who are three and four years old to the instructor. Each skill set begins with Introduce the Skill and a script for the instructor to follow. Following the introduction is Help Children Respond which is also scripted to elicit the children’s participation; this has an activity for the students to complete with assistance. The lesson for each skill can be extended by the Try This, Too! activities which are included in the book. Furthering the lesson is the section called Book Break where the author has referenced books tie into the skill being taught. The book also informs the instructor of how to group the children, what materials are needed, and suggestions in the Teachable Moments box.
Assessment
The introduction describes a need for this type of book because teachers face challenges with students that may have come from families that have not “set limits” for their students. Leber also states that “research has shown … a high correlation between social and academic behavior and that the level of social competence in preschoolers is a good predictor of their academic success in elementary school.” The author does not cite the sources for her research that she bases the premise of the book. The Book Break section is a resource that can save the instructor valuable time in finding books that correlate to the social skills being taught. Reviewing the teachable moments provides the instructor with little reminders of referencing back to the skill set being taught at different times in the school day.
Reflection
This book does a nice job of introducing social skills to children, however, it’s only as good as the instructor providing and disseminating the information. If used as a standalone do this one worksheet a week type of activities, the book loses its purpose and meaning. If the skills are taught as integrated lesson throughout the curriculum and the extended activities are used, the book can be a very powerful tool in early childhood education.

Idia A. Abode
Taking a Stand: The Bullying Prevention Series
Summary
The DVD stressed the importance of bullying prevention program in light of its recognition as a major threat to educational institutions. The DVD began with an interview of Evan Ramsey a bullying victim who endured bullying at Bethel Regional High School until he retaliated by killing his high school principal and a school mate who never bully him. He is now languishing in jail serving a 210 years sentence. Reformed bullies regardless of their gender were also interviewed about their perspectives on school violence. Ramsey agreed to the interview to create the awareness of the negative and unintended effects of bullying. Bullying is a prevalent problem in the U.S. the statistics indicated an estimated 1.6 million students in grades six through ten are bullied and about 150,000 victims cut classes each day to avoid being bullied.
Assessment
Dr. James Shaw explained how to confront and counter bullying in the nation’s schools. Bullying proof programs utilized both educational and incarceration approaches break the cycle of violence. HAHASO (H - Help, A – Assert, H – Humor, A – Avoid, S – Self-Talk O – Own, was used in Colorado Antibullying Project after the Columbine incident. Students at Aurora in Colorado shared their successes as part of the anti-bullying and peer mediation programs in their schools. Bullying incident at Aurora, Colorado was down 50% as a result of strategies learned from antibullying program. In Hasting, Minnesota a more extreme antibullying program was employed to combat bullying. Repeated offenders are locked up for at least a day. This provides them the time needed for reflection and also served as a deterrent for future occurrence. The program is designed for students in 6th grade through 10th grades which are the grades mostly impacted by bullying.
Reflection
Violence and intentional injury prevention is most likely to be successful when work occurs at multiple levels simultaneously and when these efforts are connected and integrated. Bullying resulted in students cutting classes resulting in negative impact on learning. Social emotional learning must be dealt with if we are to be successful in addressing academic achievement. Students must be provided the coping skills as bullying is a behavioral issue. Steps must be taking that seeking help is not the same as snitching. At my current school a sixth grader won’t let his parents or school administrators know that he is being bullied. He transferred to another school rather than provide the details. More work is needed to assist students in seeking help and standing up to the bullies.

Jothany Blackwood

Responding to Hate at School: A Guide for Teachers, Counselors and Administrators


Summary

This manual published by Teaching Tolerance is created to assist administrators, counselors, and teachers to respond directly and immediately to all incidents of bias. And it looks at strategies on how to involve parents and the community, along with students, in addressing solutions to these issues. Responding to Hate at School delivers proven strategies from educators around the country and clear steps for addressing a range of ongoing challenges from daily concerns, long term planning in response to issues that involve policies and staff development, to crisis and emergency situations of hate crimes.

The program looks at a broad definition of bias incidents which includes hate crimes, hate speech, hate literature and derogatory language, and media images. This guide includes real life events and the step-by-step processes administrators around the country took to respond to them. It also includes strategies from conflict mediators, organizations concerned with these issues, and religious figures. The guide is separated into four sections with guidelines: Part 1: Everyday Action, Part 2: School-Wide Emergency Response, Part 3: Long-Range Commitment, Part 4: Appendices of resources such as policies


Assessment

The guide offers detailed feedback not just on the issues, but on clear steps in response to the incident. This would be helpful to any administrator, counselor, or teacher dealing with hate as it can be uncomfortable and many people are unclear of the appropriate steps. For example, in addressing a school’s long-range commitment to, it outlines clear steps for a school to take. These include creating policies that encourage respect of all students and equity, providing training to staff on responding to diversity, encouraging students to be active in these issues, and creating a community network of support. It is also helpful that it reviews these issues nationally and offers real life situations and how other educators responded to them.



Reflection

Responding to Hate at School: A Guide for Teachers, Counselors and Administrators
is an anti-hate curriculum which highlights strategies for educators to implement in responding to these issues at three different levels in their schools. These levels include the daily uses of hate, crisis levels of hate crime, and long term planning that impacts policy. The guide is developed for teachers, counselors and administrators so all educators can recognize the signs of hate in a variety of settings and respond immediately to it in the spirit of CRE.


Teneecia Brannon
Schools Where Everyone Belongs- DVD
Based on the book by Stan Davis


Summary
The dvd offers a set of techniques that can be used in schools to combat the growing problem of Bullying. The focus is on two techniques that can be used as Bully Prevention tools. The two techniques include, Investigating Aggressive Behavior and Assigning Consequences, and Helping Students Reflect. The dvd gives actual simulations of these techniques being used and shows how the facilitator is to complete each technique successfully. Tips are given in order to avoid creating further confrontations and there are tips to get each participant to the next step toward a change in their behavior.

Assess
The Schools Where Everyone Belongs dvd is a useful tool for school campuses that have an increased number of Bullying issues. This dvd gives administrators a powerful tool that makes the bully become responsible for his/her actions. The techniques include a writing component that allows the student to focus on their actions and alternatives actions they could have used. Strategies of allowing the student to state their actions and then to find their own consequence that is on a posted rubric, helps the administrator hold a positive tone and work through the problem in a positive way. The information on the dvd is reliable, in that many schools deal with bullying on a daily basis and have no skills to confront it. With this dvd, their goal of giving tools to school leaders was accomplished and is made easily available to those in need of help with this growing problem.

Reflect
The philosophy behind Schools Where Everyone Belongs fits in well with our studies in conflict resolution. Within this program, students are taught to reflect on their behaviors and to find alternatives to fix future behaviors. Although the author of the program down plays the idea of peer mediation, students that are bystanders to bullying are empowered through this program to take action and to provide intersession to inappropriate behavior. This program does help administrators take a closer look at how they approach bullying situations and the clarity of their disciplinary plans. Helpful hints and strategies exist in this program that can cross to other conflict resolution situations. The program will also remind educators that they are the best role models to alternative student behaviors and that they should display it daily by using positive feeling tone when talking and staying respectful to students at all times.

Teneecia Brannon
Annotated Bibliography
Beer, J. E., & Stief, E. The Mediator’s Handbook. Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers,
1997.


Summary
Beer and Stief offer a complete handbook for mediators. In this handbook, the common terms of mediation are clearly defined, as well as, a given definition of what mediation is. This 167 page handbook is separated in the following six sections: Overview, The Mediation Session, Supporting the People, Controlling the Process, Solving The Problem, and Informal Mediation. Within these sections is a detailed description of the steps to take in order to complete each part of the mediation process successfully. Everything from how to set up the mediation room, to what tone to take with the participants are covered. Cautions and sample situations are also given for practice.

Assess
The handbook offers a step-by-step guide for mediators to use to conduct a mediation session. The guide is meant for any mediation process and any mediator in any given mediation situation. This handbook can be used across different environments and is not set for just one type of working location. The goal of the handbook is to guide a mediator into a stable, non-threatening mediation environment for all parties involved. Keeping the mediator a neutral participant is a key goal of the handbook, making sure to enforce the fact that all parties are interested in a common goal. The handbook offers to be a reliable tool that can be extremely useful on a school campus for all educators to use.

Reflect
The Mediator’s Handbook fits in closely with the steps covered in chapter thirty-two of 2nd edition of our class reading, The Handbook of Conflict Resolution. Due to this connection, The Mediator’s Handbook can be a great fit into the education world. This type of handbook can be useful in many realms of education including administration/teacher conflicts, teacher/teacher conflicts, teacher/parent conflicts, administration/parent conflicts, student/student, and teacher/student conflicts. These types of conflicts occur on a given school campus on a daily basis and if not handled correctly, can quickly go astray. This handbook offers useful information that can lead to a productive solution to any conflict through strategic, positiveHH mediation sessions.

Teneecia Brannon
Building A Peaceful Community- DVD
By Pam Lane, researcher and program developer


Summary
The Building A Peaceful Community dvd shows a south Phoenix community’s response to an increase in aggravated assaults, children’s lack of empathy, and an increase of fights on a neighborhood community school campus. The steps toward building a better community included adding peer mediation into the school, offering anger management skills to students, conflict resolution skills training to teachers, and offering parents classes in communication skills and conflict resolution. The importance of incorporating the students, teachers, parents, and the community makes for a well rounded program that will in turn create a better community for everyone.

Assess
With the growing changes in our communities, educators are facing the reality that it is not “business as usual” any more. Student populations are changing, as well as, family structures and home lives. Students are very well informed due to the connectivity of the world today, which can cause for students to be exposed to things they later act out in schools. With the information in this dvd, educators and parents can help create a better community now and in the future, by following the simple teachings of peer mediation. Students will be empowered with skills that can transfer into behaviors they use at home, all the while, making them better people in society. The goal of this reliable information is to give students the skills that will help raise their self esteem and confidence, ultimately helping them be academically and socially prepared for their futures.

Reflect
Seeing as how this program was created by our current professor, the information is very useful to our research in conflict resolution. The dvd shows students in action as peer mediators helping defuse a conflict. It takes us through the steps of mediation through the eyes of the student and allows students to tell what they have learned about themselves along the way. This dvd offers a first-hand look at how these techniques can be used and how they can lead to success. It gives accounts of the success of the program from school and community leaders and even adds tips of ways to create funds or find trainings needed to start a conflict resolution in your own school.

Eimear O'Farrell



Halligan, J. & Iverson, Rebecca, A., (1976). The Conflict Manager Program, Peer Mediation for Elementary Schools: An Implementation and Training Guide. Community Boards Publications, San Francisco, CA
This guide provides an overview of the entire process involved in setting up a CRE program at an elementary school site. This easy-to-read guide suggests a step by step timeline for the administrator to design a peer mediation program at a school site. It begins with the preparatory steps including conducting a needs assessment and presenting and training with the staff, as well as outlining the role of program coordinators. The guide also lays out the training guidelines for student mediators including different training approaches, techniques, and ideas, including role play. In addition, this guide provides useful tools for keeping records, forms, scheduling, and other mediation responsibilities. A detailed two day training specification is included as well as a host of useful reproducible documents for inclusion in the program.
In assessing this guide, I have noted a distinct similarity between the concepts and ideas of this publication and the other programs with which I am familiar, such as the Mediator Mentors program at Fresno State University. The information in this guide is very reliable in that it builds on the research in CRE and SEL, as evidenced by the terminology and structure of the guide. The overall objective of the publication is to provide an implementation and training guide, and the document certainly provides for these goals. The structure of the guide, with two main sections, followed by four appendices, is very beneficial for the busy administrator, as the sections are clearly written with individual chapters easily delineated. The provision of reproducible documents makes this program very user-friendly, with everything that could be needed, included in the publication.
In reflecting on the value of this resource, I am pleasantly encouraged by the alignment of the core ideologies to the research on CRE and peer mediation. The key terms that have been identified in the literature are included in this publication, thereby augmenting its authenticity and making it a valid and relevant resource. For example, there is heavy emphasis on role play, which was a key component of an article by Dr. Lane-Garon, who studied the social-cognitive development outcomes of peer mediation, and identified role play as a key element of the mediation process. This guide will prove highly useful as a resource in establishing my own site-based conflict management program, and the task-timeline graphic organizers in the guide are a tangible tool for this kind of implementation. This guide has been published by the San Francisco Community Board (SFCB) an organization, which I have noted in a research article outlining commendable publications in the field of peer mediation, the use of role play, and the emphasis on perspective taking as a key component in the social-cognitive development of students. The guide has changed my perspective on peer mediation in that it has provided a school-friendly document, demonstrating a realistic approach to the theoretical frameworks of the research.






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